(參考 Children with Starving Brain by J.McCandless, MD, pp17-36)
根據美國教育部的統計,從1998到1999一年中,全美公立小學就增加了26%的自閉兒;在美國加州11年內學齡的自閉兒增為210% (Testimony on April 25,2001 before the U.S. House of representative Committee on Government Reform by James J. Bradstreet, M.D.; direct of research for the International Autism Research Center.)
基因研究已無法証實特定染色体(Y) 在某個基因有主要的自閉症缺陷, 但目前有許多醫學著重於免疫相關的基因研究.
(2).化學中毒 (The Toxic Chemical Model)
很難想像現今的孕婦每天喝已被汙染的水, 呼吸中的空氣已混入工業生產的毒氣, 連食物都內含極重的化學農藥和激素, 所有的化學成分藉著液體, 氣體和固體在母體內, 使一個未出世的胎兒已是一個化學實驗的未知數.
在西元2000年, 美國全國科學學術報導中指出 (National Academics of science report, 2000), 因著腦神經中毒和遺傳因素的結合, 導致近25%孩子腦部發育有問題, 這也包括了自閉症, 其中最嚴重的化學中毒是多氯的碳氫化合物 (PCBs) 和含磷酸酯 (organophosphate) 的殺蟲劑.尤其是殺蟑螂和螞蟻的殺蟲劑, 其中的化學成分硬质小麦 (Dursban) 會造成腦損害. 而美國也在西元2000年, 禁止含化學成分硬质小麦 (Dursban) 在任何家用產品中.
3.重金屬污染 (The Heavy metal Contamination Model)
這是近年最震驚的發現, 許多嬰孩免疫系統的基因被重金屬襲擊, 尤其是黑鉛 (lead) 和水銀/汞 (mercury).
美國研究發現在西元1978年以前建的房子, 所有的油漆都含鉛, 在老房子中的鉛, 不但在老漆內, 也逐漸掉落沈澱在地板的夾縫內, 當嬰孩在爬行的階段, 喜歡將手放在嘴裡, 灰塵中所有的鉛也進入了體內, 在一份醫學報導中指出, “少年流氓身上有極重的鉛成分在他們的骨骼內.” (U.S. News &World report, June 19, 2000, p48), 用以解釋鉛對人體行為表現的影響.
水銀/汞: 水銀 (汞) 最常見就在老式的體溫計內, 目前發現有飼養魚含有極高的水銀在體內. 若孕婦吃到含高汞的魚, 水銀會沈澱人體造成對胎兒的傷害; 另一汞的來源是在汞合金的補牙料, 當孕婦在懷胎期間去補牙, 水銀也會因此進入母體對胎兒造成影響.
另一個引起最多爭議的汞中毒, 就是疫苗接種.它是局部抗菌劑的主要成分, 且許多案例研究中發現, 自閉兒体內的含汞量甚至超過成人所能承受的安全量, 近年一位英國醫生 Andrew Wakefield提出自閉症與防天花、腮腺炎和德國痳疹的三和一疫苗 (MMR) 有聯繫關係 (閱 “Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children”, Lancert 1998 Feb.28; 351(9103):637-41), 接著哈佛的消化疾病醫學專家 (Harvard gastroenterologist) Timothy Buie, MD, 和日本的獨立研究机構 Kawashima et al都提出疫苗與自閉症和腦損害相關聯的醫學研究報告.
4.自動免疫性/過敏 (The Auto-Immunity/Allergy Model)
一個過敏的反應是由於, 人體的自動免疫系統察覺到不明侵入物, 亦稱為 “過敏原” (allergen), 的反作用, 一般現象是充血 (congestion), 打噴嚏 (sneezing), 發炎 (inflamed), 過敏發癢的眼睛或也有局部皮膚性的發癢, 我們會服用抗組織胺劑 (anti-histamines) 與過敏原博鬥.
但許多自閉兒在過敏的反應上, 卻有活躍得不正常的動態, 許多研究學者和醫生就將此現象建立一個理論, 當一個過敏性體質的孩子承受從環境來的刺激, 例如汞進入體內, 孩子的免疫系統不僅有抗原反應 (antigens), 在他的腦部也會有分子結構 (molecular structures) 的過敏反應.
在一篇研究報導中 (Brain, Behavior, and Immunity; Volume 7, pp91-103, 1993) 論述一個實驗, 抽取自閉兒的血液中發現他們的自身抗體 (autoantibodies) 存在於中樞神經系統內產生髓素蛋白 (myelin basic protein), 這個發現解釋若神經系統被自身抗體所攻擊, 腦神經如同短路 (short-circuits) 會停止正常功能運作.
5. 濾過性毒菌效應 (The Viral Model)
這個理論是由二位醫生所提出的臨床研究 (Sidney Baker, MD, Michael Goldberg, MD), 根據他們的研究有30%的自閉兒家長特別贊許抗濾過性毒菌藥, acyclovir or Valtrex, 幫助自閉兒的免疫系統壓制傳染性的毒菌效應.
6.麵質和酪蛋白, 酵素缺乏和酵母生長過快理論 (The Gluten /Casein, Enzyme Deficiency and Yeast Overgrowth Model)
此理論在 “自閉兒的食物過敏” 文中詳細說明.
7. 金屬新陳代謝理論 (The Metallothionein Theory)
這是由一位全美著名的生物化學博士 William Walsh, PhD, (works at Pfeiffer Treatment Center in Naperville, IL), 在數千位自閉兒身上發現共同現象:
這七種自閉症起因理論互相接納, 認為是一個綜和體的導因, 一切尚無真正定論, 但汞中毒, 食物過敏和鋅銅不平衡的現象, 在美國自閉兒的研究中是普及不可忽略的現象.
路透社在華盛頓報導 (6-4-2007) by Kevin Freking
科學家有一個理論說, 有些兒童有自閉症是因接種疫苗, 但三年前醫學機構否決這個理論.
有超出4,800件訴狀要告美國聯邦政府,在過去六年因法令規定接種疫苗,致使兒童感染自閉症,第一件案子的聽訟將在下禮拜一(6-11-2007),在美國聯邦訴訟的人民法庭舉行(People’s Court-the U.S. Court of Federal Claims).
Vaccine Autism Claims Go to Court
By KEVIN FREKING
APWASHINGTON (June 4) - Science has spoken when it comes to the theory that some childhood vaccines can cause autism. They don't, the Institute of Medicine concluded three years ago.
Soon, it will be the courts turn to speak.
More than 4,800 claims have been filed against the federal government during the past six years alleging that a child contracted autism as a result of a vaccine. The first test case from among those claims will be the subject of a hearing that was to begin next Monday in a little-known "People's Court" - the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. A special master appointed by the court will hear the case.
For the parents filing a claim, there is the potential for vindication, and for financial redress.
The test case addresses the theory that the cause of autism is the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in combination with other vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal. That preservative, which contains a form of mercury, is no longer in routine childhood vaccines. However, it is used in influenza vaccines.
One of the parents who has filed a claim against the federal government and has great interest in the case is Scott Bono of Durham, N.C. His son, Jackson, 18, has autism. While acknowledging the findings of the IOM's study, Bono believes those findings were preordained by the federal government.
"The charge before the IOM committee was: 'You're not going to find anything wrong here,"' Bono said.
He said that parents of children with autism have been marginalized, but they see specific outcomes in their children that are consistent with exposure to mercury. And those outcomes did not present themselves until after they received their vaccinations. In short, the children tell the story better than the numbers, he said.
"It's a thrill in the sense that, for the first time, the stories of these children are going to be heard in court," Bono said.
In July 1999, the U.S. government asked vaccine manufacturers to eliminate or reduce, as expeditiously as possible, the mercury content of their vaccines to avoid any possibility of infants who receive vaccines being exposed to more mercury than is recommended by federal guidelines.
Dr. Paul Offit, who developed a vaccine for the rotovirus, is chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. He said epidemiological studies pick up minute, almost invisible differences in the populations that have received a vaccine versus those that have not.
For example, a swine flu vaccine in the 1970s caused the sometimes paralyzing Guillain-Barre syndrome in 1 out of 100,000 cases, he said.
But no such correlations have been found for autism, which affects about 1 out of 150 children, he said.
"It should be easily picked up," he said. "It hasn't been and the reason it hasn't been is because vaccines do not cause autism."
Offit said mercury is part of the natural environment. There's no escaping it and, in fact, children will get more mercury from breast milk than they get from a vaccine. Yet, he's frustrated when he hears lawmakers speak of having zero tolerance for mercury.
"On this planet you can't have zero tolerance for mercury," he said. "You would have to move to another planet."
Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction. Those affected often have trouble communicating, and they exhibit unusual or severely limited activities and interests. Meanwhile, classic symptoms of mercury poisoning include anxiety, fatigue and abnormal irritation, as well as cognitive and motor dysfunction.
The report from the Institute of Medicine pointed to five large studies, here and abroad, that tracked thousands of children since 2001 and found no association between autism and vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal.
Members of the National Autism Association see drug manufacturers and the federal government as working too closely together to the point that the federal government is working to protect the industry from liability. The association says its mission is to raise awareness of environmental toxins as causing neurological damage that often results in an autism or related diagnosis.
Bono, a member of the association, said he doesn't believe his son was intentionally poisoned.
"I just want someone to step up and say, 'You're right, this did happen,"' he said.
During the hearing, lawyers for the parents were expected to present their expert testimony during the first week. Then lawyers representing the federal government were expected to present their case. The hearing was to be open to the public.
Officials planned to post transcripts on the court's Web site about 24 hours after each day's proceedings.